ISBN 978 1 85944 240 1. Published 2014. When Charles V became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 Hungary was a buffer between Christendom and the Infidel but Hungary was virtually destroyed at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526. In addition the power of Venice in the Adriatic also declined leaving Italy vulnerable to Muslim attacks. The French alliance with the Ottomans in the 1540s allowed the fleets access to Marseilles and threatened Imperial security. Warfare in the Mediterranean became the responsibility of Philip II who had a great victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto under the command of Don John of Austria. The victory was ‘more famous than decisive and David Loades shows that in the confrontation between Christendom and the Ottomans in the sixteenth century, the Ottomans won on points.