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Essays in European History


David Loades

ISBN 978 1 85944 184 8           £15

Contents and sample pages
(This volume contains 40 photocopiable essays on the topics in volume I.)


1. Europe in 1453
2. Economic and Political Economy
3. The Legacy of the Hundred Years War
4. Humanism and Intellectual Curiosity
5 From Burgundy to The Netherlands
6. How Absolute was Francis I?
7. The Constitution of the Holy Roman Empire
8. The Habsburg-Valois Wars
9. Spain from Ferdinand to Isabella
10. Islam and Christendom
11. The Pre-Reformation Church
12. Martin Luther and his protest
13. The Spread of Lutheranism
14. The Swiss and South German Reformers
15. Anabaptist and other Radicals
16. The Catholic Reformation before Trent
17. Exploration and Overseas Trade
18. Money and People: financial & demographic problems
19. The End of the Wars, 1545-1559
20. The France of Henry II
21. The Council of Trent
22. Portugal, Spain, and the New World
23. Cateau-Cambrésis and it consequences
24. The Rise of Calvinism
25. The Jesuits and the Counter Reformation
26. The French Civil Wars to 1572
27. The First Phase of the Revolt of The Netherlands
28. Civil Wars and Settlement in France, 1572-1598
29. The Creation of the United Provinces
30. Spain as an Imperial Power
31. The Empire and the background to the Thirty Years War
32. The Scandanavian Intervention
33. The France of Henry IV and Richelieu
34. France and the Thirty Years War
35. The Treaties of Westphalia

Suggested Reading


David Loades

ISBN 978 1 85944 255 5           £15

Contents and sample pages


1. Explain the changing fortunes during the reigns of Philip the good and Charles the Bold
2. By what means and to what extent did the Renaissance of the late 15 and the early 16th centuries spread from Italy to other European countries?
3. How far was the Italian Renaissance during the period 145-1550 secular rather than religious?
4. To what extent was the power of the French Kings,1461-1547 limited by the nobility?
5. How fully did Ferdinand and Isabella achieve their aims?
6. Compare and contrast the methods and success of Portugal and Spain in developing overseas empires in the late fifteen and sixteenth centuries?
7. In what ways and to what extent did the Valois Kings of the period 1483-1515 lay the foundations of a stable and unified French State?
8. Was Lutheranism primarily a theological process?
9. Assess the significance for the reformation of either the Anabaptists or Ulrich Zwingli?
10. To what extent can the France of Francis I be described as a nation-state?
11. Explain the reasons for, and effect of, the increase in population in continental Europe in the first half of the sixteenth century.
12. Assess the important of printing as a force for change in the sixteenth century.
13. Why, and with what consequences for the Reformation, did many German Princes support Lutheranism.
14. What were the consequences for Spain of the election of Charles I as Holy Roman Emperor in 1519?
15. How far did Francis I neglect the interests of France to pursue a policy of aggrandisement abroad?
16. Assess the effects of inflation on different social groups during the sixteenth century.
17. Why did Spain remain a Roman Catholic country during the reign of Charles I?
18. Discuss the view that there would not have been a significant Catholic reform movement in the sixteenth century without the challenge of protestantism.
19. How real was the threat to Western and Central Europe from the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Ottoman Empire during the reign of Sulieman the Magnificent?
20. To what extent had Calvinism supplanted Lutheranism as the dynamic force for the Reformation by the middle of the sixteenth century?
21. Estimate the importance of overseas expansion/colonisation for the economic and social life of Sixteenth century Europe
22. How substantial were the achievements of Ivan the Terrible?
23. What do the summoning and the decisions of the Council of Trent tell us about the state of the Roman Catholic Church in the mid-sixteenth century?
24. Explain the reasons for, and the effects of, the development of banking in sixteenth century Europe.
25. For whom, and for what reasons, was the Peace of Augsburg (1555) a victory?
26. Why did Antwerp benefit more than Venice from the changes in the pattern of trade in the sixteenth century?
27. Why did civil war break out in France so soon after the death of Henry II in 1559?
28 To what extent were French Civil wars about Religion?
29. Why was Spain unable to crush the Dutch revolt?
30. Assess the importance of the House of Orange to the Revolt of the Netherlands between 1563 and 1609
31. Why was Henry IV more successful than Catherine de Medici in controlling the forces which threatened disorder in France?
32. How far can Philip II’s foreign policy be explained san attempt to defend the catholic faith against protestant and Muslim forces?
33. Why, despite important of bullion from the New World, did Philip II often find himself in financial difficulty?
34. Why did the economy of the Northern Provinces of The Netherlands remain strong in the years to 1609, in spite of the wars of independence?
35. Was Spain in steep decline in the early seventeenth century?
36. ‘Gustavus Adolphus gave Sweden a greatness which it could not sustain’. Discuss this assessment.
37. To what extent were the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin dominated by their wish to break the Habsburg encirclement of France?
38 ‘The most important turning point in the Thirty Years War’ Do you agree with this assessment of the Edict of Restitution (1629)?
39. Discuss the claim that the basis of the Scientific Revolution in the seventeenth century was observation.
40. What issues were settled by the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)?

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Judith Loades