1. Explain the changing fortunes during the reigns of Philip the good and Charles the Bold
2. By what means and to what extent did the Renaissance of the late 15 and the early 16th
from Italy to other European countries?
3. How far was the Italian Renaissance during the period 145-1550 secular rather than religious?
4. To what extent was the power of the French Kings,1461-1547 limited by the nobility?
5. How fully did Ferdinand and Isabella achieve their aims?
6. Compare and contrast the methods and success of Portugal and Spain in developing overseas
empires in the
late fifteen and sixteenth centuries?
7. In what ways and to what extent did the Valois Kings of the period 1483-1515 lay the
foundations of a
stable and unified French State?
8. Was Lutheranism primarily a theological process?
9. Assess the significance for the reformation of either the Anabaptists or Ulrich Zwingli?
10. To what extent can the France of Francis I be described as a nation-state?
11. Explain the reasons for, and effect of, the increase in population in continental Europe in
half of the sixteenth century.
12. Assess the important of printing as a force for change in the sixteenth century.
13. Why, and with what consequences for the Reformation, did many German Princes support
14. What were the consequences for Spain of the election of Charles I as Holy Roman Emperor in
15. How far did Francis I neglect the interests of France to pursue a policy of aggrandisement
16. Assess the effects of inflation on different social groups during the sixteenth century.
17. Why did Spain remain a Roman Catholic country during the reign of Charles I?
18. Discuss the view that there would not have been a significant Catholic reform movement in
century without the challenge of protestantism.
19. How real was the threat to Western and Central Europe from the Ottoman Empire during the
Ottoman Empire during the reign of Sulieman the Magnificent?
20. To what extent had Calvinism supplanted Lutheranism as the dynamic force for the Reformation
middle of the sixteenth century?
21. Estimate the importance of overseas expansion/colonisation for the economic and social life
22. How substantial were the achievements of Ivan the Terrible?
23. What do the summoning and the decisions of the Council of Trent tell us about the state of
Catholic Church in the mid-sixteenth century?
24. Explain the reasons for, and the effects of, the development of banking in sixteenth century
25. For whom, and for what reasons, was the Peace of Augsburg (1555) a victory?
26. Why did Antwerp benefit more than Venice from the changes in the pattern of trade in the
27. Why did civil war break out in France so soon after the death of Henry II in 1559?
28 To what extent were French Civil wars about Religion?
29. Why was Spain unable to crush the Dutch revolt?
30. Assess the importance of the House of Orange to the Revolt of the Netherlands between 1563
31. Why was Henry IV more successful than Catherine de Medici in controlling the forces which
disorder in France?
32. How far can Philip II’s foreign policy be explained san attempt to defend the catholic faith
protestant and Muslim forces?
33. Why, despite important of bullion from the New World, did Philip II often find himself in
34. Why did the economy of the Northern Provinces of The Netherlands remain strong in the years
to 1609, in
spite of the wars of independence?
35. Was Spain in steep decline in the early seventeenth century?
36. ‘Gustavus Adolphus gave Sweden a greatness which it could not sustain’. Discuss this
37. To what extent were the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin dominated by their wish to break
encirclement of France?
38 ‘The most important turning point in the Thirty Years War’ Do you agree with this assessment
of the Edict
of Restitution (1629)?
39. Discuss the claim that the basis of the Scientific Revolution in the seventeenth century was
40. What issues were settled by the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)?